Hand pumps for water lifting
Simple and inexpensive construction
Less intensive operation (foot operated)
Maintenance uses local skills and materials
High water delivery (up to 100 litres/min at 4
Limited to wells of less than 7 metres in depth
Comparison of Different Types of Shallow-Well Pump
Table 2 provides a comparison of the shallow well suction pumps discussed in the previous
section. All of these pumps can only be used to raise water from depths of up to 7 metres.
7 m depth
up to 90
Treadle up to 100
Table 2: Comparison of different types of shallow well pump
with local skills
and purchase of
with local skills
Village level with
local skills and
Deep-well pumps can be used to raise water from depths of over 7 metres and in some cases can lift
water from wells as deep as 180 metres. The following section describes five different types of pumps
used to raise from deep-wells i.e. the direct action pump, the rope pump, the diaphragm pump, the
helical rotor pump and the deep-well piston pump.
Direct action (or "direct drive") Pump
The direct action pump design (Figure 8C) replaces the narrow pump rod present in the
reciprocating piston pump with a hollow plastic pipe. This pipe displaces water as the pump
handle is pushed down. During the up-stroke, the valve on the piston closes and water is lifted
up. The pump is capable of pushing water up the rising main during both strokes.
The direct action pump depends upon the strength of its user to lift the column of water in the
pipe. However, because the pipe is hollow, it floats, so in practice the handle does not have to be
pulled up so hard. The direct action pump is capable of lifting water from a depth of up to 12
metres at a rate of approximately 26 litres/min. Compared to piston hand pumps, this type of
pump is relatively cheap to buy and simple to install and maintain.
Relatively cheap, and easy to manufacture.
Maintenance facilitated by easy access to
piston which can be pulled up through the
Limited to depths of up to 12 m.
Most designs have a maximum usage of around